干货 | SCI写作框架和语言技巧

本文摘要:一、写作框架和各部门要求TitleBe short,accurate and unambiguous;Give your paper a distinct personality;Begin with the subject of the study.IntroductionWhat is known;What is unknown;Why we did this study?MethodsParticipants,subjects;Measurements;Outcome


一、写作框架和各部门要求TitleBe short,accurate and unambiguous;Give your paper a distinct personality;Begin with the subject of the study.IntroductionWhat is known;What is unknown;Why we did this study?MethodsParticipants,subjects;Measurements;Outcomes and explanatory variables;Statistical methods.ResultsSample characteristics;Univariate analyses;Bivariateanalyses;Multivariateanalyses.Tables and figuresNo more than six tables or figures;Use Table 1 for sample characteristics(no P values);Put most important findings in a figure.DiscussionState what you found;Outline the strengths and limitations of the study;Discuss the relevance to current literature;Outline your implications with a clear“So what?”and“Where now?”ReferencesAll citations must be accurate;Include only the most important,most rigorous,and most recent literature;Quote only published journal articles or books;Never quote“second hand”;Cite only 20-35 references.FormattingInclude the title,author,page numbers,etc.in headers and footers;Start each section on a new page;Format titles and subtitles consistently;Comply with“Instructions to authors”.二、英文写作的语言技巧01.IntroductionA.如何指出当前研究的不足并有目的地引导出自己研究的重要性。在叙述前人结果之后,用However来引导不足,提出一种新方法或新偏向。如:However,little information(little attention/little work/little data/little research……).如:Previous research(studies,records) has(have) failedtoconsider/ignored/misinterpreted/neglectedto/overestimated,underestimated/misleaded.thus,these previous resultsareinconclisive,misleading,unsatisfactory,questionable,controversial.Uncertainties(discrepancies)still exist……研究方法和偏向与前人一样时,可通过以下方式强调自己事情:However,data is still scarce(rare,less accurate),We need to(aim to,have to)provide more documents(data,records,studies,increase the dataset).Further studies are still necessary(essential)……强调自己研究的重要性,一般还要在However之前先容与自己研究问题相反或相关的问题。


We aim to test the feasibility (reliability) of the……It is hoped that the question will be resolved (fall away) with our proposed method (approach).B.提出自己的看法:We aim to/This paper reports on/This paper provides results/This paper extends the method/This paper focus on……The purpose of this paper is to……Furthermore,Moreover,In addition,we will also discuss……C.圈定自己的研究规模:introduction的另一个作用就是告诉读者(包罗reviewer),你文章的主要研究内容。如果处置惩罚欠好,reviewer会提出严厉的建议,好比你没有思量某种可能性,某种研究手段等。为淘汰这种争论,在前言的末端就必须明确提出本文研究的规模:1)时间尺度;2)研究区域等。

如涉及较长的时序,你可明确提出本文只体贴某一特定时间规模的问题,We preliminarily focus on the older(younger)……如有两种时间尺度(long-term and short term),你可说两者都重要,可是本文只涉及其中一种。研究区域的问题,和时间问题一样,也需明确提出你只体贴某一特定区域!D.最后的圆场:在前言的最后,还可以总结性地提出“这一研究对其它研究有什么资助”;或者说further studies on……will be summarized in our next study(or elsewhere)。总之,其目的就是让读者把思路集中到你要讨论的问题上来。只管淘汰不须要的争论(arguments)。

SCI常见的句型盘货Beginning1. In this paper, we focus on the need for2. This paper proceeds as follow.3. The structure of the paper is as follows.4. In this paper, we shall first briefly introduce fuzzy sets and related concepts5. To begin with we will provide a brief background on theIntroduction1. This will be followed by a description of the fuzzy nature of the problem and a detailed presentation of how the required membership functions are defined.2. Details on xx and xx are discussed in later sections.3. In the next section, after a statement of the basic problem, various situations involving possibility knowledge are investigated: first, an entirely possibility model is proposed; then the cases of a fuzzy service time with stochastic arrivals and non fuzzy service rule is studied; lastly, fuzzy service rule are considered.Review1. This review is followed by an introduction.2. A brief summary of some of the relevant concepts in xxx and xxx is presented in Section 2.3. In the next section, a brief review of the …. is given.4. In the next section, a short review of … is given with special regard to …5. Section 2 reviews relevant research related to xx.6. Section 1.1 briefly surveys the motivation for a methodology of action, while 1.2 looks at the difficulties posed by the complexity of systems and outlines the need for development of possibility methods.Body1. Section 1 defines the notion of robustness, and argues for its importance.2. Section 1 devoted to the basic aspects of the FLC decision making logic.3. Section 2 gives the background of the problem which includes xxx4. Section 2 discusses some problems with and approaches to, natural language understanding.5. Section 2 explains how flexibility which often … can be expressed in terms of fuzzy time window6. Section 3 discusses the aspects of fuzzy set theory that are used in the …7. Section 3 describes the system itself in a general way, including the ….. and also discusses how to evaluate system performance.8. Section 3 describes a new measure of xx.9. Section 3 demonstrates the use of fuzzy possibility theory in the analysis of xx.10. Section 3 is a fine description of fuzzy formulation of human decision.11. Section 3, is developed to the modeling and processing of fuzzy decision rules12. The main idea of the FLC is described in Section 3 while Section 4 describes the xx strategies.13. Section 3 and 4 show experimental studies for verifying the proposed model.14. Section 4 discusses a previous fuzzy set based approach to cost variance investigation.15. Section 4 gives a specific example of xxx.16. Section 4 is the experimental study to make a fuzzy model of memory process.17. Section 4 contains a discussion of the implication of the results of Section 2 and 3.18. Section 4 applies this fuzzy measure to the analysis of xx and illustrate its use on experimental data.19. Section 5 presents the primary results of the paper: a fuzzy set model ..20. Section 5 contains some conclusions plus some ideas for further work.21. Section 6 illustrates the model with an example.22. Various ways of justification and the reasons for their choice are discussed very briefly in Section 2.23. In Section 2 are presented the block diagram expression of a whole model of human DM system24. In Section 2 we shall list a collection of basic assumptions which a … scheme must satisfy.25. In Section 2 of this paper, we present representation and uniqueness theorems for the fundamental measurement of fuzziness when the domain of discourse is order dense.26. In Section 3, we describe the preliminary results of an empirical study currently in progress to verify the measurement model and to construct membership functions.27. In Section 5 is analyzed the inference process through the two kinds of inference experiments…This Section1. In this section, the characteristics and environment under which MRP is designed are described.2. We will provide in this section basic terminologies and notations which are necessary for the understanding of subsequent results.Next Section3. The next section describes the mathematics that goes into the computer implementation of such fuzzy logic statements.4. However, it is cumbersome for this purpose and in practical applications the formulae were rearranged and simplified as discussed in the next section.5. The three components will be described in the next two section, and an example of xx analysis of a computer information system will then illustrate their use.6. We can interpret the results of Experiments I and II as in the following sections.7. The next section summarizes the method in a from that is useful for arguments based on xxSummary1. This paper concludes with a discussion of future research consideration in section 5.2. Section 5 summarizes the results of this investigation.3. Section 5 gives the conclusions and future directions of research.4. Section 7 provides a summary and a discussion of some extensions of the paper.5. Finally, conclusions and future work are summarized6. The basic questions posed above are then discussed and conclusions are drawn.7. Section 7 is the conclusion of the paper.Chapter 0. Abstract1. A basic problem in the design of xx is presented by the choice of a xx rate for the measurement of experimental variables.2. This paper examines a new measure of xx in xx based on fuzzy mathematics which overcomes the difficulties found in other xx measures.3. This paper describes a system for the analysis of the xx.4. The method involves the construction of xx from fuzzy relations.5. The procedure is useful in analyzing how groups reach a decision.6. The technique used is to employ a newly developed and versatile xx algorithm.7. The usefulness of xx is also considered.8. A brief methodology used in xx is discussed.9. The analysis is useful in xx and xx problem.10. A model is developed for a xx analysis using fuzzy matrices.11. Algorithms to combine these estimates and produce a xx are presented and justified.12. The use of the method is discussed and an example is given.13. Results of an experimental applications of this xx analysis procedure are given to illustrate the proposed technique.14. This paper analyses problems in15. This paper outlines the functions carried out by …16. This paper includes an illustration of the …17. This paper provides an overview and information useful for approaching18. Emphasis is placed on the construction of a criterion function by which the xx in achieving a hierarchical system of objectives are evaluated.19. The main emphasis is placed on the problem of xx20. Our proposed model is verified through experimental study.21. The experimental results reveal interesting examples of fuzzy phases of: xx, xx22. The compatibility of a project in terms of cost, and xx are likewise represented by linguistic variables.23. A didactic example is included to illustrate the computational procedureChapter 1. IntroductionTime1. Over the course of the past 30 years, .. has emerged form intuitive2. Technological revolutions have recently hit the industrial world3. The advent of … systems for has had a significant impact on the4. The development of … is explored5. During the past decade, the theory of fuzzy sets has developed in a variety of directions6.The concept of xx was investigated quite intensively in recent years7. There has been a turning point in … methodology in accordance with the advent of …8. A major concern in … today is to continue to improve…9. A xx is a latecomer in the part representation arena.10. At the time of this writing, there is still no standard way of xx11. Although a lot of effort is being spent on improving these weaknesses, the efficient and effective method has yet to be developed.12. The pioneer work can be traced to xx [1965].13. To date, none of the methods developed is perfect and all are far from ready to be used in commercial systems.Objective / Goal / Purpose1. The purpose of the inference engine can be outlined as follows:2. The ultimate goal of the xx system is to allow the non experts to utilize the existing knowledge in the area of manual handling of loads, and to provide intelligent, computer aided instruction for xxx.3. The paper concerns the development of a xx4. The scope of this research lies in5. The main theme of the paper is the application of rule based decision making.6. These objectives are to be met with such thoroughness and confidence as to permit …7. The objectives of the … operations study are as follows:8. The primary purpose/consideration/objective of9. The ultimate goal of this concept is to provide10. The main objective of such a … system is to11. The aim of this paper is to provide methods to construct such probability distribution.12. In order to achieve these objectives, an xx must meet the following requirements:13. In order to take advantage of their similarity14. more research is still required before final goal of … can be completed15. In this trial, the objective is to generate…16. for the sake of concentrating on … research issues17. A major goal of this report is to extend the utilization of a recently developed procedure for the xx.18. For an illustrative purpose, four well known OR problems are studied in presence of fuzzy data: xx.19. A major thrust of the paper is to discuss approaches and strategies for structuring ..methods20. This illustration points out the need to specify21. The ultimate goal is both descriptive and prescriptive.22. Chapter 2. Literature Review23. A wealth of information is to be found in the statistics literature, for example, regarding xx24. A considerable amount of research has been done .. during the last decade25. A great number of studies report on the treatment of uncertainties associated with xx.26. There is considerable amount of literature on planning27. However, these studies do not provide much attention to uncertainty in xx.28. Since then, the subject has been extensively explored and it is still under investigation as well in methodological aspects as in concrete applications.29. Many research studies have been carried out on this topic.30. Problem of xx draws recently more and more attention of system analysis.31. Attempts to resolve this dilemma have resulted in the development of32. Many complex processes unfortunately, do not yield to this design procedure and have, therefore, not yet been automated.33. Most of the methods developed so far are deterministic and /or probabilistic in nature.34. The central issue in all these studies is to35. The problem of xx has been studied by other investigators, however, these studies have been based upon classical statistical approaches.36. Applied … techniques to37. Characterized the … system as38. Developed an algorithm to39. Developed a system called … which40. Uses an iterative algorithm to deduce41. Emphasized the need to42. Identifies six key issues surrounding high technology43. A comprehensive study of the… has been undertaken44. Much work has been reported recently in these filed45. Proposed/Presented/State that/Described/Illustrated/Indicated/Has shown / showed/Address/Highlights46. Point out that the problem of47. A study on …was done / developed by []48. Previous work, such as [] and [], deal only with49. The approach taken by [] is50. The system developed by [] consists51. A paper relevant to this research was published by []52. []’s model requires consideration of…53. []’ model draws attention to evolution in human development54. []’s model focuses on…55. Little research has been conducted in applying … to56. The published information that is relevant to this research…57. This study further shows that58. Their work is based on the principle of59. More history of … can be found in xx et al. [1979].60. Studies have been completed to established61. The …studies indicated that62. Though application of xx in the filed of xx has proliferated in recent years, effort in analyzing xx, especially xx, is lacking.Problem / Issue / Question63. Unfortunately, real-world engineering problems such as manufacturing planning do not fit well with this narrowly defined model. They tend to span broad activities and require consideration of multiple aspects.64. Remedy / solve / alleviate these problems67. … is a difficult problem, yet to be adequately resolved68. Two major problems have yet to be addressed69. An unanswered question70. This problem in essence involves using x to obtain a solution.71. An additional research issue to be tackled is ….72. Some important issues in developing a … system are discussed73. The three prime issues can be summarized:74. The situation leads to the problem of how to determine the …75. There have been many attempts to76. It is expected to be serious barrier to77. It offers a simple solution in a limited domain for a complex02.DiscussionA.怎样提出看法:在提出自己的看法时,接纳什么样的计谋很重要,不合适的句子通常会遭到reviewer置疑。1)如果看法不是这篇文章最新提出的,通常要用We confirm that……2)对于自己很自信的看法,可用We believe that……3)通常,由数据推断出一定的结论,用Results indicate、infer、suggest、imply that……4)在极其特别时才可用We put forward(discover,observe) ……“for the first time”来强调自己的创新……5)如果自己对所提出的看法不完全肯定,可用We tentatively put forward (interrprete this to…) or The results may be due to(caused by) attributed to resulted from……or This is probably a consequence of……It seems that……can account for(interpret) this……or It is posible that it stem from……要注意这些结构要合理搭配。如果通篇是类型1)和5),那这篇文章的意义就大打折扣。如果全是2),肯定会遭到置疑。


常见的毗连词有:However、also、in addition、consequently、afterwards、moreover、Furthermore、further、although、unlike、in contrast、Similarly、Unfortunately、alternatively、parallel results、In order to、despite、For example、Compared……with、other results、thus、therefore……用好毗连词能使文章条理清楚,意思明确。好比,叙述有时间顺序的事件或文献,最早的文献可用AA advocated it for the first time.接下来可用Then BB further demonstrated that.再接下来,可用Afterwards,CC……如果另有,可用More recent studies by DD……如果叙述两种看法,要把它们截然离开AA put forward that……In contrast,BB believe or Unlike AA,BB suggest or On the contrary(讲明前面看法错误),如果只讲明两种看法对立,用in contrast BB……如果两种看法相近,可用AA suggest……Similarily,alternatively,BB……Or Also,BB or BB allso does……表现因果或者前后关系可用Consequently,therefore,as a result……讲明递进关系可用furthermore,further,moreover,in addition……写完一段英文,最好首先检查是否较好地应用了这些毗连词。2)注意段落结构的整体逻辑:经常我们要叙述一个问题的几个方面。

这种情况下,一定要注意逻辑结构。第一段要明确告诉读者你要讨论几个部份……Therefore,there are three aspects of this problem have to be addressed.The first question involves……The second problem relates to……The third aspect deals with……清晰地把看法逐层叙述。也可以直接用First,Second,Third,Finally……固然,Furthermore,in addition等可以用来增补说明。3)讨论部份的整体结构:小标题是把问题分为几个片段的好方法。



如果刻意隐藏文章的毛病,以为别人看不出来,是很是不明智的。所谓不足,包罗以下内容:1)研究的问题有点片面,讨论时一定要说:It should be noted that this study has examined only……We concentrate(focus)on only……We have to point out that we do not……Some limitations of this study are……2)结论有些不足。The results do not imply……The results can not be used to determine(or be taken as evidence of)……Unfortunately,we can not determine this from this data……Our results are lack of……但指出这些不足之后,一定要马上再次增强本文的重要性以及可能接纳的手段来解决这些不足,为别人或者自己的下一步研究打下伏笔。

Not withstanding its limitation,this study does suggest……However,these problems could be solved if we consider……Despite its preliminary character,this study can clearly indicate……用中文来说这是左右逢源,把审稿人想到的问题提前给一个交接,同时讲明你已经在思考这些问题,可是由于文章长度,试验进度或者试验手段的制约,暂时不能回覆这些问题。但通过你的一些建议,这些问题在未来的研究中有可能实现。


这是对前人事情最起码的尊重,英文叫做给别人的事情credits.所以文章不要泛起很是negative的评价,好比Their results are wrong,very questionable,have no commensence,etc.遇到这类情况,可以婉转地提出:Their studies may be more reasonable if they had……considered this situation.Their results could be better convinced if they……or Their conclusion may remain some uncertanties.三、撰写外刊论文的体会有人归纳了外刊论文撰写的五个基本要求,即5C:正确(correctness)、清楚(clarity)、简练(concision)、完整(completion)和一致性(consistency)。只有满足这5点,才算是一篇及格的外刊文章。IntroductionIntroduction是外刊文章最难写的部门之一(另外就是Discussion)。































千万不要泛起按讨论的内容可以推出与实验相反的结论这种情形,那证明你的讨论思路是彻底的失败或你的实验压根儿就是失败的。所以Discussion的文字形貌和语言表达的准确性尤为重要。由于中英文表达的差别,在投稿之前要只管制止泛起表达上的误解,如果论文因此被拒是很冤枉的。Acknowledge&ReferencesAcknowledge主要分为两个:第一是讲明研究的基金泉源,中国一般都是Nature Science Foundation of China(NSFC,国家自然科学基金),美国大多是National Institute of Health(NIH,美国国家卫生研究院)。

写基金时一般要标注清楚基金号码(Grant Number),只有这样才算是该项基金的研究结果,也可以算做实验室的研究结果。须知没有任何一项研究结果是在没有资金资助的情况下完成的,所以这一点很是须要。第二是对到场人员(没有列在作者中的研究人员)和单元表现谢谢,如果通过一审和最终接受揭晓,还要添上对editor和anonymous reviewers的谢谢,这是基本礼貌。




时态之间的界线是比力严格的,最好是仔细的通读外洋的论文,好好分析一下,或者让有履历的人帮你把把关,这样比力好一些。四、Writing Skills in English for Research Paper写paper注意九个环节:Preparation,Structure,Title,Abstracts,Introduction,Conclusion,Body of Paper,Recision,Acknowledgement。Preparation就是收集资料,找出灵感和偏向,主要依靠的是journal in library。Structure是重点,paper的structure应该是两个triangle组成的:上面一个倒三角,下面一个正三角,意思就是选题要宽(wide),研究偏向要窄,然后最后的conclusion又发散开来。

在paper的body前后都必须有declarative statement,用最少的字句表达出自己的看法,吸引读者。Title必须清晰简短(clear,short),表达出自己唯一的topic以提升读者的兴趣(promote the interest of reader),然而title中切记不能泛起abbreviation和自己的result。

Abstracts是paper的一个缩写(miniature of whole paper),一定要简明简要(less than 200 words,one paragraph),根据paper的顺序先容主要研究工具(subject)、实验设计(design)、实验步骤(procedures)以及最后效果(results),这种先容必须让非专业的人员(non-specialist)能够看懂。Introduction同样要保证简短,顺序是一般配景先容、别人事情结果、自己的研究目的及事情简介,其中先容别人事情时只需先容和自己最相关的方面(very relevant),而对自己的事情先容不用说明细节,因为这个要放到body中去。

不要忘记在先容自己事情之前要有一个declarative statement。Body部门可以分为methods、result和discussion三个部门:①Methods,详尽的先容自己的实验方案以便于他人能够重复自己的实验历程,对于通用的实验方案可以简略,重点要放到自己的独创方案上面(own procedures),根据实验的先后顺序先容,为了文章的阅读利便,不要使用过多条理的subheadings,好比subsubsubsection等等。

②Result,使用text、table、figure等手段表达出来,其中table不要使用过多,而figure必须保证图线清楚、注解明确,须要的时候还要对于自己的result中的一些结论举行解释说明。③Discussion,这个部门是为了以后的study,在其中提出自己的problem或者是hypothesis,和别人的结果举行比力,表示自己的主要收获,为后面的conclusion做准备。五、撰写论文初稿(writing the first draft)1)质料和方法(methods and materials):做了什么和怎样做?质料和方法是文章开始写作的最理想部门,这部门的内容作者最相识。写作要求:用已往时,尽可能按实验的先后顺序形貌。





9)作者(author list):谁到场了本研究的设计、事情及论文的撰写?10)准备论文最后一稿(preparing the final manuscript):论文初稿完成以后,必须对内容及花样举行重复推敲和修改,到达“投稿须知”的一切要求。绝大多数有履历的编辑都认为:不认真准备的稿件绝不是高水平科学研究结果的良好载体(A poorly prepared manuscript is,almost without fail,the carrier vehicle of poor science.Day AR.)。

如果希望论文揭晓,在准备投稿时必须做到打字整洁、无错、切合期刊花样、含有期刊要求的所有质料。该历程一般分三步:再次阅读拟投期刊的“投稿须知”;用“投稿须知”中提供的“稿件对照检查表”(manuscript checklist,author’s checklist)与自己论文一一核对;凭据期刊要求打印输出,完成最后一稿。